critical thinking要怎么写
发布时间:2023-04-19 17:56:59

Critical Essayexample

A review of the available literature provides a wealth of examples of authors advocatingleadership as an essential quality in nursing. For example, Shackleton (1950) emphasisesthat nursing needs strong leadership and recommends a strong transactiona! approach ofreward and punishment to get results and promote teamwork. However, more recently,authors have moved towards the concept of charismatic and transformationa! leadership(Smith, 2001; Jones, 2004). These qualities are also an integral part of the newrecommendations in the NHS Pan (DOH 2002).

Charisma appears to be a complex phenomenon to define. Davidzhar (1991) suggeststhat it is an aspect of personality which makes the individual irresistible to others, in termsof their ability to persuade and empower others. However, other authors, such asRomano (1996) and Harvey (2000) highlight the intangible nature of charisma andemphasise the frustrating point that individuals know charisma if they see it, but find itdifficult to define.

it appears problematic, therefore, to identify exactly how charisma can become anintegral part of developing transformational leadership in nursing, if it is a quality which, initself, is difficult to define. For example, Smith (2001) maintains that transformationa.eadership uses a combination of charisma and interpersonal skills to enable achievementHowever, identifying potential transformationa! leaders may be a difficulty if the pre-requisite for identifying charismatic individuals is an integral part of this selection process

Jones (2004) argues that the key ability of a transformational leader is the ability toempower others, while Fea (2001) maintains that their key strength is to increase feelingsof self-worth and capability in their team members. On reflection, my own experience oftransformational leadership appeared to be based principally on being persuaded, by thesheer force of personality of the individual, that I had the potential to contribute andachieve. lt seemed to me that it was their apparent faith in me and their power ofpersuasion that enabled me to become an effective team member.

This requirement for charisma in transformational leadership, therefore, may indeed bebased on individual personality factors that enable others to feel good about themselvesand their achievements. There is some evidence that this is the case. Jones (2003), forexample, argues that transformationa! leaders are born and cannot be made. Recisara(2003) also maintains common key personality traits can be identified in effectivetransformational leaders, which have probably been present since childhood. lt seems.therefore, that the key requirement of the NHS Plan (2002) for the training oftransformationa! leaders is not as straightforward as they first envisioned, as the availableliterature suggests that these leaders are born, rather than made.





E.g.作者是如何理解这种情况的?他的理论背景是什么? 这将如何影响他们对形势的看法?作者是否模糊地定义了一个概念?作者是否低估或忽略了与他们的论点相反的证据? 证据可信吗?能找出证据中的偏差吗? 结论似乎提供了一个不同于他/她在介绍中提出的论点? 作者的背景对他们的论点有重要影响吗? 等等